Institutsleiter

Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Stefanos Fasoulas

Stellvertreter

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sabine Klinkner

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Alfred Krabbe

Sekretariat
Prof. Fasoulas

Larissa Schunter

Sekretariat
Prof. Klinkner

Annegret Möller

Sekretariat
Prof. Krabbe

Barbara Klett

Administration

Dr. Thomas Wegmann

 


Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme
Pfaffenwaldring 29
70569 Stuttgart

Tel. +49 711 685-69604
Fax +49 711 685-63596

Directly to

 

 

Research Group for Diagnostics of High Enthalpy Flows

 

(S. Löhle)

IMG_5600_2_25prozent

(M. Eberhart)

The flow at the surface of a spacecraft entering a planet's atmophere is characterized by extreme temperatures, velocities and pressures. These conditions are simulated in plasma wind tunnel facilities. For example, one important goal is to test materials considered for use in thermal protection systems in similar conditions experienced during actual atmospheric entry.

The research group for Diagnostics of High Enthalpy Flows develops and uses various techniques to characterize the plasma conditions during plasma wind tunnel testing. Non-Intrusive, optical techniques (e.g.emission spectroscopy, absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence) as well as intrusive probe-based techniques for measuring enthalpy, heat flux and gas composition. A lot of those techniques are not limited to application in plasma wind tunnels, but are for example useful for combustion diagnostics as well as (airborne) observation campaigns for (re-)entry of spacecrafts and space debris.  

 

The Team

Dr.-Ing. Stefan Löhle (team lead)
Dipl.-Ing. Arne Meindl (laser-induced fluorescence, polarization spectroscopy)
Dipl.-Ing. Tobias Hermann (emission spectroscopy, including VUV)
Dipl.-Ing. Martin Eberhart (light-field imaging diagnostics)
Dr. Fabian Zander (ISS break-up, high speed imaging)
Dipl.-Ing. Rainer Öfele (development of solid electrotolyte sensors for in-flight diagnostics on sounding rockets)

 

Former Members

Dr.-Ing. Christoph Eichhorn (Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung, Leipzig)
Dr.-Ing. Andreas Steinbeck (Airbus Defense and Space, Lampoldshausen)
Dipl.-Ing. Ulf Fuchs (Euro Engineering, Friedrichshafen)
Dr.-Ing. Thomas Marynowski (Airbus Optronics, Oberkochen)
Dipl.-Ing. Hannes Fulge (Airbus Defense and Space, Lampoldshausen)

 

Publications (selection)

M. Eberhart, S. Loehle, F. Zander, H. Merbold, A. Murk, and S. Merli, "Electromagnetic Wave Transmission through Lightweight Carbon Phenolic Ablator: Microwave to Infrared Frequencies," in Proc. 46th Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, 2016

T. Hermann, S. Löhle, F. Zander, H. Fulge, and S. Fasoulas, "Characterization of a Re-entry Plasma Wind Tunnel Flow with Vacuum Ultraviolet to Near Infrared Spectroscopy," Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, vol. 30, iss. 3, pp. 673–688, 2016

P. Jenniskens, J. Albers, M. Koop, M. Odeh, K. Al-Noimy, K. Al-Remeithi, K. Al Hasmi, R. F. Dantowitz, F. Gasdia, S. Loehle, F. Zander, T. Hermann, D. Farnocchia, S. R. Chesley, P. W. Chodas, R. S. Park, J. D. Giorgini, W. J. Gray, D. K. Robertson, and T. Lips, "Airborne Observations of an Asteroid Entry for High Fidelity Modeling: Space Debris Object WT1190F," in Proc. SciTech 2016, 2016

S. Loehle, S. Fasoulas, G. Herdrich, T. Hermann, B. Massuti-Ballester, A. Meindl, A. S. Pagan, and F. Zander, "The Plasma Wind Tunnels at the Institute of Space Systems: Current Status and Challenges," in Proc. 46th Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, 2016

S. Loehle, T. Hermann, F. Zander, and T. Marynowski, "Echelle Spectroscopy for High Enthalpy Flow Diagnostics," in Proc. 46th Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, 2016,

S. Loehle, T. Hermann, and F. Zander, "Experimental Assessment of the Performance of Ablative Heat Shield Materials from Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing," in Proc. 8th ESA Workshop on Thermal Protection Systems and Hot Structures, 2016,

S. Loehle, T. Hermann, and F. Zander, "Experimental Assessment of the Performance of Ablative Heat Shield Materials from Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing," in Proc. 8th European Workshop on Thermal Protection and Hot Strucutres, 2016,

F. Zander, T. Hermann, and S. Loehle, "Plasma Wind Tunnel Flow Analysis with High Speed Imaging," in Proc. 46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, 2016,

F. Zander and S. Loehle, "Analysis of Air Plasma Flows in Magnetoplasmadynamic Arcjet Testing," in Proc. 46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Washington, DC, 2016,
 

  

News, Images, Events, Research:

 

01.01.2017

Martin Eberhart has started with his research on the application of light-field imaging for high-enthalpy flow diagnostics as our new Post-Doc.

Good luck and welcome back!

21. - 25.11.2016

7th International Workshop on Radiation of High Temperature Gases

Our team organized the RHTG Workshop 2016. We would like to thank all participants for the exciting and interesting week!

For more information see www.irs.uni-stuttgart.de/rhtg/index.html.

 

11.11.2016

Dr.-Ing. Thomas Marynowski

Our former colleague Thomas Marynowski successfully passed the defense of his PhD. Congratulations, Tom!

05.10.2016

Tomographic optical emission spectroscopy measurements allow for a three-dimensional reconstruction of an air plasma jet created in our plasma wind tunnel facility PWK1.

 
Figure: Surfaces of equal emission intensity of the plasma jet at different exposure times: (a) 0.25 ms, (b) 0.8 ms, (c) 1.6 ms, (d) 10 ms.  

These and more exciting findings from the tomographical measurements will be published in:

T. Hermann, S. Loehle, S. Fasoulas, and A. Adrianatos, "Tomographic Optical Emission Spectroscopy for Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing," Applied Optics, 2016, under review

 

21.07.2016

First investigation of meteorite fragments in a plasma wind tunnel facility

We have exposed a meteorite fragment to the conditions experienced during entry into Earth's atmosphere. The fragment was provided by the Observatoire de Paris and the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille.

Several diagnostic techniques were used during the test: High speed imaging, thermographic imaging, photography, high resolution optical emission spectroscopy and video imaging. 

The results are stunning!

 
                             (M. Eberhart)

   

23.06.2016

Observation of CYGNUS OA6 re-entry

F. Zander and T. Hermann were part of an airborne obervation campaign to study the re-entry of CYGNUS OA6.

More information:

http://atv5.seti.org/cygnus/

 

 
                                                                                                          (P. Jenniskens)

The observation team in Christchurch, New Zealand.

 

13. - 17.6.2016

Attendance of the AIAA Aviation Conference 2016 in Washington, D.C.

The following articles were presented:

M. Eberhart, S. Loehle, F. Zander, H. Merbold, A. Murk, and S. Merli, "Electromagnetic Wave Transmission through Lightweight Carbon Phenolic Ablator: Microwave to Infrared Frequencies," in Proc. 32nd AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Washington, DC, 2016,

T. Hermann, S. Loehle, R. Öfele, S. Fasoulas, and A. Adrianatos, "Tomographic Optical Emission Spectroscopy for Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing," in Proc. 46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Washington, DC, 2016,

S. Loehle, "Review of Heat Flux Measurements for High Enthalpy Flows," in Proc. 32nd AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Washington, DC, 2016,

S. Loehle, A. Nawaz, G. Herdrich, and S. Fasoulas, "Comparisson of Heat Flux Gages for High Enthalpy Flows - NASA Ames and IRS," in Proc. 32nd AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Washington, DC, 2016,

S. Loehle, T. Hermann, F. Zander, and T.  Marynowski, "Echelle Spectroscopy for High Enthalpy Flow Diagnostics," in Proc. 32nd AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Washington, DC, 2016,

S. Loehle, S. Fasoulas, G. Herdrich, T. Hermann, B. Massuti-Ballester, A. Meindl, A.S. Pagan, and F. Zander, "The Plasma Wind Tunnels at the Institute of Space Systems: Current Status and Challenges," in Proc. 32nd AIAA Aerodynamic Measurement Technology and Ground Testing Conference, Washington, DC, 2016,

A. Meindl, T. Hermann, S. Loehle, and S. Fasoulas, "Assessment of Coherent Laser Diagnostic Techniques for Probing Atomic Oxygen in High-Enthalpy Flows," in Proc. 47th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Washington, DC, 2016,

F. Zander, T. Hermann, and S. Loehle, "Plasma Wind Tunnel Flow Analysis with High Speed Imaging," in Proc. 46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Washington, DC,2016,

F. Zander and S. Loehle, "Analysis of Air Plasma Flows in Magnetoplasmadynamic Arcjet Testing," in Proc. 46th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Washington, DC, 2016,

All articles are available on request.

 

13.11.2015

Observation of the re-entry of object WT1190F

With a preparation time of only 6 weeks, the international airborne observation campaign for the WT1190F re-entry has been successfully organized and executed. The mission was led by P. Jenniskens (SETI Institute) and M. Odeh (International Astronomical Center von Abu Dhabi).

We mounted our compact Echelle spectrometer equipped with a camera system vor manual tracking aboard a Gulfstream 450. We expected around 8 seconds of effective observation time for the entire entry.

The campaign took place during daylight which made it all the more challenging. The tracking was not perfect but nevertheless, we successfully managed to capture the object with our camera system.

Overall, the mission was a great international scienctific achievement!

More information:

http://blogs.esa.int/rocketscience/2015/10/30/esa-sponsors-wt1190f-observations/

http://www.nature.com/news/researchers-rendezvous-with-falling-space-debris-1.18791

 

 
                                        (Foto: T. Lips, HTG)

Where is it now? 
F. Zander, S. Löhle

 
                        (Sony Kamera, P. Jenniskens, SETI)

WT1190F in the sky on 13.11.2015    

  

19.10.2015

Launch of O-States 2

After a period of bad weather conditions, the second sounding rocket of the O-States project was successfully launched from Kiruna, Sweden on 19.10.2015 at 16:10h local time. The rocket carried innovative oxygen sensors that have been developed in our lab.

For more information: eberhart@irs.uni-stuttgart.de

 

launch (K. Sjölander)
raw data of FIPEX (M. Eberhart)

  

02.10.2015

Launch of O-States 1

On 2.10.2015 at 7:39 local time, the first sounding rocket of the O-States project was launched from Kiruna, Sweden. For this first launch of the project, the sounding rocket was equipped with sensors for detection of atomic oxygen. The same kinds of sensors were already successfully used in the WADIS project. We are excited to see how the sensors behaved on this particular flight that reached an altitude of 250 km.

The upcoming second launch in this project in mid-October will yield some valuable insights as well. It will be the first flight for our own sensor prototypes that we produced with an ink jet printer.

For more information: eberhart@irs.uni-stuttgart.de

 

 

 
launch (K. Sjölander) retrieval of payload (K. Sjölander)  

  

05.03.2015

Launch of WADIS-2

On March 5th, 2:44 a.m. local time, the WADIS-2 sounding rocket was launched from Andoya Space Center in northern Norway. It's the overall second launch in a mission to investigate wave propagation and dissipation in the mesosphere. The goal is to determine the influence of different physical processes on the energy budget in Earth's atmosphere in altitudes between 70 and 100 km. For this purpose, the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) in Kühlungsborn has designed a payload with various experiments, two of which being our own FIPEX and PHLUX sensor systems. Both systems are used to measure the amount of atomic oxygen in the atmosphere for any given altitude along the sounding rocket's trajectory. This information is critical, because the dissociation of molecular oxygen into atomic oxygen can store and transport solar energy chemically. PHLUX uses the temperature difference between two surfaces of different materials which enable the recombination of oxygen atoms to different degrees. FIPEX is a solid electrolyte sonsor with special electrodes coated in gold. Both systems have been calibrated in our lab.

The rocket reached an agogee of 126 km in altitude. After the flight, the payload was retrieved via boat from the ocean. All instruments, airborne as well as ground-based, worked as intended and a lot of valuable data was collected by the rocket's payload. First evaluations of the FIPEX and PHLUX data have been very promising. We will be able to produce profiles of atomic oxygen concentrations as a function of altitude from these measurements. Martin Eberhart and Arne Meindl prepared and conducted the measurements on location in Norway.    

For more information: eberhart@irs.uni-stuttgart.de

 

 

 
WADIS-2 on launch pad payload with PHLUX and FIPEX sensors (top left and top right respectively)  

 

 landscape around Andoya Space Center
  Photos: M. Eberhart

22.10.2014

Stefan Löhle has received the mission to coordinate the ESA activities of the NASA/ESA-initiative for observation of the last european cargo spacecraft ATV-5 leaving ISS. The atmospheric entry of ATV-5 "Georges Lemaitre" is expected to occur towards the end of february 2015 above the southern pacific ocean. ATV-5 will burn up during the re-entry. The observation will be conducted from inside a plane with a total of 18 experiments.

Latest news: http://atv5.seti.org or loehle@irs.uni-stuttgart.de

1.10.2014

Arne Meindl hat started his doctoral research study in our group.Welcome!

15.09.2014

As part of a DAAD scientific exchange project, Hannes Fulge will work at University of Queensland at the Centre for Hypersonic for 4 weeks.

20.06.2014

Attendance of AIAA Aviation Conference 2014

in Atlanta, 16.-20.6.2014

Atlanta2014

                 H. Fulge, F. Zander, A. Brandis (NASA), T. Marynowski, T. Hermann, S. Löhle

The following articles were presented:

Fulge, H., Löhle, S., Fasoulas, S., Analysis of Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy for
Water Vapour Measurements in Supersonic Combustion

Hermann, T., Zander, F., Fulge, H., Löhle, S., Fasoulas, S., Experimental Setup forVacuumUltraviolet
Spectroscopy for Earth Re-entry Testing

Marynowski, T., Löhle, S., Zander, F., Meindl, A., Fasoulas, S., Aerothermodynamic Investigation of Inductively
Heated CO2 Plasma Flows for Mars Entry Testing

Löhle, S., Stäbler, T., Reimer, T., Cefalu, A., Photogrammetric Surface Analysis of Ablation
Processes in High Enthalpy Air Plasma Flow

Löhle, S., Hermann, T., Zander, F., Fulge, H., Marynowksi, T., Ablation Radiation Coupling Investigation in Earth
Re-entry Using Plasma Wind Tunnel Experiments

All articles are available on request.

 

High-Speed Imaging of CO2 Plasma Flows

 

    

Photographs of the three modes of CO2 plasma creation in PWK3 (T. Marynowski, F. Zander).